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105. World Economic Forum: To Counter the COVID-19 Recession, Invest in Food Systems

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) published an article entitled “To counter the COVID-19 recession, invest in the food system” at the World Economic Forum. Three measures have been proposed to stimulate the economy and strengthen the food supply chain: regional economic integration, food security, and strengthening the food system at the regional level.

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104. Science: Ecology and Economics for Pandemic Prevention

On July 24, 2020, the article "Ecology and economics for pandemic prevention" was published in Science Magazine. This paper evaluates the cost of monitoring and preventing disease outbreaks due to extensive loss and fragmentation of tropical forests, and the flourishing wildlife trade. Analysis shows that the costs associated with precautionary measures are far less than the economic and mortality costs associated with countering these pathogens.

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103. Science: COVID-19 Risks to Global Food Security

On July 31, 2020, researchers from the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) published a paper entitled “COVID-19 risks to global food security” in Science Magazine. The policy forum article tackles how the COVID-19 pandemic has led to economic fallout and disruptions to the food supply chain, and discusses critical responses that policy-makers should consider to prevent this global health crisis from becoming a global food crisis.

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102. IFPRI: ebook "COVID-19 & Global Food Security"

The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) has published an electronic book “COVID-19 & Global Food Security”, tackling the impact of COVID-19 on global poverty, food security, diets and nutrition, labor restrictions and remittances, food trade, supply chains, gender and employment. This e-book also presents policy responses to the pandemic on global food and nutrition security, and provides key insights on the future of pandemics and food systems.

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101. Food Security: Resilient Agri-food Systems for Nutrition Amidst COVID-19

Researchers at the International Potato Center (CIP) published a paper in Food Security entitled “Resilient agri-food systems for nutrition amidst COVID-19: evidence and lessons from food-based approaches to overcome micronutrient deficiency and rebuild livelihoods after crises”. Amidst the uncertainty due to COVID-19 pandemic, the paper stated that production and market diversification strategies should be prioritized in order to protect food and nutrition security of the world's poor.

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100. About Desert Locust 〜Frequently Asked Questions and Answers

This is the 100th article of this Pick Up, which started in March 2020. While the spread of the new coronavirus is a major problem in the world, the desert locust has also become a major problem in East Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and South India. JIRCAS is conducting ecological research to develop a control method for desert locust and we have received many questions about this transboundary insect pest. We have prepared a FAQ on midge grasshoppers, so if you are interested in midge grasshoppers, please click here.
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99. Highest-ever Temperature of 21.7 Degrees Recorded in the Arctic Svalbard where the Global Seed Vault is Located

On July 26, 2020, AFP reported that Norway’s Arctic archipelago Svalbard, which is located about 1,000 kilometers from the North Pole, recorded it’s highest-ever temperature of 21.7 degrees on the 25th of July. The Svalbard Global Seed Vault, a long-term seed storage facility established by the Global Crop Diversity Trust, is located in Svalbard Islands and has been storing seeds from around the world since 2008. The climatic conditions that led to a record high temperature this time would affect the maintenance of storage and could threaten the agrobiological base of crop diversity.

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98. The Lancet: 6.7 Million Increase in Child Wasting Due to COVID-19

A commentary article published in the medical journal The Lancet, “Impacts of COVID-19 on childhood malnutrition and nutrition-related mortality”, projected that an additional 6.7 million children will be wasted due to economic, food, and health system disruptions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. It is widely expected that nutritional status and survival of children particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) will be at risk as income declines sharply, foods with high nutritional value become unavailable, and health, nutrition, and social security services are disrupted. This prediction underscores the need for immediate action and investments from the government and the private sector to protect children's right to nutrition in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic.

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97. The Lancet: Fertility, Mortality, Migration and Population Scenarios for 195 Countries and Territories from 2017 to 2100

The Lancet published a paper “Fertility, mortality, migration, and population scenario for 195 countries and territories from 2017 to 2100: a forecasting analysis for the global burden of disease study” with a lower world population forecast than the estimate of the United Nations. In the reference scenario, the world population was projected to peak at 9.73 billion in 2064 and decline to 8.79 billion (6.83-1.8 billion) in 2100 based on novel methods for forecasting mortality, fertility, migration and population.

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96. Nature Climate Change: Climate Change and Locust Outbreak in East Africa

The scientific journal Nature Climate Change published an article entitled “Climate change and locust outbreak in East Africa”. When an event happens, it is difficult to attribute its cause to climate change. However, climate change, such as rising temperatures, increased rainfall in desert areas, and strong winds associated with tropical cyclones, provide a new environment suitable for breeding, development, and migration of pests. Thus global warming may have played a role in creating the conditions necessary for the occurrence of locust outbreak.

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95. World Economic Forum: Nature Risk Rising

The World Economic Forum published a report “Nature Risk Rising: Why the crisis engulfing nature matters for business and the economy” in January 2020. Five factors, including land use change, have contributed to 90% of natural loss over the last 50 years. All businesses depend directly or indirectly on natural capital and ecosystem services. Estimates show that more than half of the world's total GDP worth $44 trillion of economic value is dependent on nature and its services, and is therefore at risk from nature loss.

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94. United Nations: Why a sustainable food systems are needed in a post-COVID world

In July 2020, UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), World Food Program (WFP) published an article entitled "Why sustainable food systems are needed in a post-COVID world". The article discusses how the post-COVID-19 crisis economic reconstruction can provide an opportunity to transform the global food system and make it resilient to future shocks, ensuring environmental sustainability and a nutritious food supply.

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93. FAO July 2020 Report on Food Price Trends

According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Food Price Monitoring and Analysis (FPMA) Bulletin Monthly Report in July 2020, wheat export prices continued to decline in June, and international rice prices decreased for the first time this year. In contrast, the prices of maize which have been on a downtrend for the past few months, have turned upward due to strong global demand.

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92. Emerald Publishing: The Global Inclusivity Report 2020

Emerald Publishing, one of the scholarly publishing groups, published “The Global Inclusivity Report 2020” on July 17, 2020, summarizing the possibilities of how the academic sector can contribute to the realization of a highly inclusive society. The report discusses the meaning of inclusivity, the barriers to inclusivity, the benefits of an inclusive society, and how it can enhance the workplace. Furthermore, it elaborates on how the academic and research community can make a great contribution to correct political judgment, raising public awareness, improving learning quality etc. on this issue through knowledge sharing and the need to work in partnership with civil society and various other sectors.

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91. Commodity Crop Exports in the Coronavirus Crisis一The Case of Kenya

International trade has been significantly affected by the border blockade caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, in developing countries, which are commodity exporters of agricultural products, lockdown measures imposed by governments have caused severe disruption to supply chains. Even in Kenya, where foreign currency income is dependent on export crops such as tea, fruits and vegetables, a sharp decline in demand in Europe and the Middle East in March 2020 and a rise in freight costs due to a decrease in passenger flights severely hit the agricultural sector. In the case of Kenya, there are reports that exports of some commodities such as tea and fruits withstood the coronavirus shock and are recovering.

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90. The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2020: Transforming Food Systems for Affordable Healthy Diets

In July this year, the 2020 edition of "The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World Report (SOFI)" was published. SOFI was originally one of the flagship report of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) to inform on progress towards ending hunger, achieving food security and improving nutrition. It has been jointly produced by five UN agencies including FAO, International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), World Food Programme (WFP) and World Health Organization (WHO). This year's subtitle is "Transforming food systems for affordable healthy diets".
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89. United Nations Environment Program & International Livestock Research Institute: Preventing the next pandemic

In July 2020, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) published a report “Preventing the next pandemic — Zoonotic diseases and how to break the chain of transmission”. The report identifies the key anthropogenic drivers for the emergence of zoonoses including increasing demand for animal proteins, unsustainable and intensive agriculture, exploitation of wildlife resources, and climate change.

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88. African Development Bank: African Economic Outlook 200 Amid COVID-19

The African Development Bank published the “African Economic Outlook 2020 Supplement 2020 - Amid COVID-19” on July 7, 2020, with projections that the GDP in the African region will drop significantly due to COVID-19, and 30 million people will be losing jobs. Among the diversified reforms needed to revive the economy and accelerate recovery, the importance of boosting the agricultural sector, which provides much of Africa's employment was highlighted.

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87. World Bank Report: Thailand Economic Situation in the Time of COVID-19

The World Bank released a report “Thailand Economic Monitor, June 2020: Thailand in the Time of COVID-19”. The shock of the new coronavirus that hit Thailand in early 2020 highlighted the vulnerabilities of the Thai economy driven by a sharp deterioration in global and domestic demand.

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86. CCAFS: Actions to Transform Food Systems Under Climate Change

The CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), an international network of agricultural research institutes, has published a report, “Actions to Transform Food Systems Under Climate Change”, with proposals on goals and target areas to address the challenges.