Development of agricultural technologies for sustainable management of the environment and natural resources in developing regions
Climate change and environmental degradation have been escalating on a global scale. This program copes with these issues by developing and demonstrating technologies jointly with research institutes and extension organizations in Asian and African countries as well as local farmers involved.
Regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural activities, the development of agricultural systems that reduce methane emissions and attain better carbon balance will be promoted through the introduction a water-saving irrigation scheme in paddy fields and through effective linkage of crop and livestock systems.
New technologies will be elaborated to reduce crop damage caused by extreme phenomena such as floods and erratic rainfall. In vulnerable regions where land degradation is accelerated and problem soils have expanded, technologies that sustain stable crop yield, in terms of crop improvement, cropping techniques, and soil and water management at a watershed scale, will be developed. The dissemination models will be proposed and demonstrated to apply these new technologies into target areas.
The development of breeding materials with enhanced biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) ability will be endeavored for more effective utilization of nitrogen fertilizer and to reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) gas emissions chiefly from cropping uplands and grasslands.
In October 2020, Prime Minister Suga declared the goal of realizing a carbon-neutral, decarbonized society by 2050. In response, the government formulated the “Green Growth Strategy with Carbon Neutrality by 2050”. “Development of biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) enhanced varieties to reduce GHGs and water pollutants”, is listed as one of the promising innovations in the action plan in “Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries” sector.
In 2019, the world’s leading international organizations warned that climate change and environmental degradation are progressing more than expected. Along with the negative impact of environmental degradation and climate change on agriculture, it should be noted that agriculture is one of the major contributors to these global problems. Agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) activities accounted for 23% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and changes in these activities are also major causes of loss of biodiversity. In order to achieve food and nutrition security while avoiding irreversible risks in the future, it is necessary to develop and disseminate AFOLU to minimize the negative impacts on climate change and the environment. JIRCAS aims to realize sustainable integration of agriculture and contribute to climate change issues through technological development that improves productivity while sustainably and stably utilizing agricultural resources such as water, soil and fertilizer.