Information Analysis

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540. Climate Change, Food Crisis and the International Day for Biological Diversity

On May 18, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) released the State of the Global Climate 2021, announcing that all four key indicators of climate change - greenhouse gas concentrations, sea level rise, ocean heat, and ocean acidification - reached new records in 2021. On the same day, UN Secretary-General Guterres also addressed the already critical global food crisis in climate change and COVID-19, sounding the alarm over the rapid deterioration of food security due to Russia's invasion of Ukraine and calling for urgent international collaboration to address the food crisis. May 22 is the International Day for Biological Diversity. In a globalized world, the issues of climate change, food crisis and biological diversity are closely interrelated and must be resolved through international collaboration.
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539. Prospects and Potential of Amaranths and Underutilized Crops for Health Promotion

Global environmental change is one of the most serious threats to global food security. In addition, more than 2 billion people worldwide suffer from some form of micronutrient deficiency, known as ‘hidden hunger’. In this situation, over-dependence on a limited number of crop species, such as rice, wheat, maize, and soybean, can lead to loss of genetic diversity, vulnerability of crop breeding to environmental adaptation, and unbalanced nutrition. Effective utilization of underutilized crops and genetic resources, known as orphan crops, may be one of the solutions to these problems. We are pleased to present a review article on the potential of orphan crops, particularly amaranths, for addressing environmental and nutritional issues.
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538. Genetic and Molecular Mechanisms Conferring Heat Stress Tolerance in Tomato

Climate change is a major threat to global food security, with the potential to affect the current food system not only by reducing crop production, but also by reducing the genetic diversity of its wild relatives, limiting options for future variety breeding and reducing the ability to adapt to more severe challenges in the future. In addition, the projected temperature rise in the future will increase the likelihood of extreme weather events, including heat waves, and heat stress will become a major contributor to abiotic stress in many crops. Heat stress can have adverse effects on plant morphology and physiology during all stages of vegetative and reproductive development. Especially in fruiting vegetables such as tomatoes, even moderate heat stress can dramatically reduce fruit set and yield, resulting in poor fruit quality. We are pleased to present a review article describing the genetic and molecular mechanisms for conferring heat stress tolerance in tomatoes.
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537. Palm Oil as Resource for Future Eco-life

In response to the unstable international social situation, prices of food products continue to rise due to the global surge in prices of vegetable oil, grains, meat and other commodities. In particular, the recent price increase of vegetable oil has been remarkable, and the raw material used for processing vegetable oils and fats is palm oil. Today, we would like to introduce a mini lecture, “Palm Oil as Resource for Future Eco-life” which explains the challenges facing the palm oil industry.
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536. Water connects you and Africa ~ SDGs and Agricultural Water Use

The JIRCAS Online Open House 2022 was held last month and the mini-lectures by research staff are archived on our YouTube channel. Today, we would like to introduce the mini-lecture entitled “Water connects you and Africa ~ SDGs and Agricultural Water Use”.
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535. Realizing Earth-friendly Agriculture with the Power of Microorganisms

Looking at global food production, contamination of surface and ground water is occurring  in systems that use excessive chemical fertilizers to improve soil fertility and productivity. In contrast, a variety of soil microorganisms found in the soil, especially in the rhizosphere of crops, are known to contribute to nutrient absorption by crops. Promoting the activity of beneficial microorganisms is expected to enhance crop productivity and indirectly promote environmentally friendly agriculture by reducing reliance on chemical fertilizers. Today, we introduce a mini-lecture by a JIRCAS research staff entitled, “Realizing Earth-friendly Agriculture with the Power of Microorganisms”
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534. Various Types of Rice ~Rich Rice Culture in Asia

Last month, JIRCAS held an online open house. The mini-lectures by JIRCAS research staff are archived on our YouTube channel. Today, we would like to introduce "Various Types of Rice: Rich Rice Culture in Asia".
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533. The Impact of Diversity in Agricultural Production on Children's Nutritional Status

Malnutrition has major lifelong consequences for children. In this issue, we present a paper that looks at the diversity of agricultural production, food diversity, and its impact on children's nutritional status in rural Madagascar, looking at the diversity of each farmer's agricultural production, food diversity, and its impact on children's nutritional status.
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532. Changes in Virulence of Asian Soybean Rust Pathogen in Bangladesh

Asian soybean rust is a serious problem in soybean production in tropical and subtropical regions. This disease is also a problem in Bangladesh along with the expansion of domestic production. In this study, we investigated the virulence of the Asian soybean rust against known resistance genes in order to control this disease through the introduction of resistant varieties. The results showed that while the virulence of the pathogenic samples in 2016 was weak and many of the known resistance genes were effective, the virulence of 2018 and 2019 samples changed strongly. They included a strongly virulent rust samples for which seven known resistance genes were completely ineffective. While the introduction of resistant varieties is effective from a cost and environmental impact perspective, the development of resistant varieties using gene-pyramiding to deal with highly virulent rusts is needed to achieve a stable effect of control. 
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531. Food Systems, Climate Change and Land Degradation

On May 5, it was announced that the 2022 World Food Prize will be awarded to NASA climatologist Dr. Cynthia Rosenzweig who is known for her pioneering work in modeling the impacts of climate change on food production and has contributed to providing the evidence needed for food system transformation. On April 27, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) released the 2nd edition of Global Land Outlook, warning that human activities are putting unprecedented strain on the land.
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530. The 2022 Global Report on Food Crises

The 2022 Global Report on Food Crises (GRFC 2022), released on May 4, reports that almost 193 million people in 53 countries and territories faced an immediate food security crisis in 2021, an increase of nearly 40 million people from the previous year, and expresses concern that the food security crisis has risen over the past six years.

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529. April 2022 Global Grain Market

The problems occurring in Ukraine and Russia, the world's breadbasket, have created a climate of uncertainty in the grain markets. Monitoring trends in major producing and exporting countries that affect demand and supply is critical to global food security. We introduce here the maize situation in Brazil based on the April monthly report on grain market conditions from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

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528. Impact of War on Food, Energy and Finance Systems

The Russia-Ukraine crisis has come at the worst possible time for the world as it grapples with its response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Soaring food, energy, and fertilizer prices have increased the risk of further global instability, and on April 13, the United Nations released a report by the Global Crisis Response Group, which expressed concern that 17 million people worldwide will be significantly affected by any one of a number of risks that could spill over into the food, energy, and financial systems from the war in Ukraine. The report expressed concern that 17 million people worldwide would be severely affected by any one of a number of risks that could spill over into the food, energy, and financial systems of Ukraine.

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527. Changing Africa ~Field Researchers' Views on Food and Agriculture in Africa~

On the last day of the JIRCAS Open House 2022, a panel discussion was held on the theme of "Changing Africa: Field Researchers' Views on Agriculture and Food in Africa".

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526. Towards Sustainable Use of Wild Species

Many of the products around us such as cosmetics and supplements that we unconsciously use on a daily basis are made from wild plant species. In recent years, the global demand for raw materials from wild species has been increasing, but they are in danger of extinction due to loss of survival zones, climate change, and over-exploitation. A recent report published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) hopes to raise awareness among all those involved in the wild species trade, leading to conservation through responsible consumption and production.
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525. Importance of Agricultural Diversity in Building Climate Resilient Food Systems

Recently, under climate change, our food system has been exposed more frequently to extreme weather events such as rising temperatures, forest fires, droughts and floods, and new diseases caused by temperature and rainfall changes. The Guardian's April 14 article argues that diversity of genetic resources is the key to climate change adaptation.

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524. International Mother Earth Day

Today, April 22, is International Mother Earth Day. This year's theme is “Invest in Our Planet”. Actions are needed to promote the transition to a sustainable economy that is friendly to both humanity and the planet.
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523. JIRCAS Open House 2022: Live Streaming of Panel Discussion on April 24 at 1:00-2:00 PM JST

The JIRCAS Open House 2022 is now online. A panel discussion focusing on food and agriculture in Africa will be held via live-streaming on April 24 (Sun), the last day of the Open House, from 1:00 PM JST. Please watch and join us.
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522. Stamp Rally Quiz Challenge on International Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries

The JIRCAS Open House 2022 is now accessible online until April 24 (Sun) at a special site on the official website. Today, we will introduce 2 activities, the "Stamp Rally Quiz” on international agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, and "360˚ Camera Video" from a researcher/animal's point of view.

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521. Gaps in Global Food Systems Research

On April 12, Nature published an editorial discussing how the war in Ukraine is exposing a gap in food systems research and the need for action by researchers to stem the cycle of another food crisis. The invasion, war, pandemic and financial crisis are all putting unprecedented stress on the global food system.