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683. Historic International Agreement on Biodiversity Conservation

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The 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity, which had been held in Montreal, Canada since December 7, closed on December 19. 

At COP15, negotiations between developing and developed countries were initially expected to be difficult, but the "30 by 30" commitment to conserve at least 30% of the world's terrestrial and marine areas by 2030 was finally agreed upon. This landmark agreement has been hailed as the equivalent of a "peace pact with nature" and comparable to the Paris Agreement on climate change. With regard to the agriculture, forestry, and fisheries sector, the commitment called for a contribution to the long-term resilience and efficiency of production systems through sustainable use of biodiversity and innovative approaches, and included a reduction of food waste by half.

More specifically, the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework was agreed upon, including four goals and 23 targets to be achieved by 2030. Among the global targets for 2030 are the following:

  • Conserving at least 30% of the world's lands. inland waters, coastal areas and oceans, with emphasis on areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services
  • Cut global food waste in half
  • Reduce by half excess nutrients and risk posed by pesticides and hazardous chemicals
  • Gradually reduce or revise subsidies that damage biodiversity by 2030, while strengthening mechanisms that contribute to biodiversity conservation and sustainable use
  • Mobilize by 2030 at least $20 billion per year in domestic and international biodiversity-related funding from public and private sources
  • Raise international financial flows from developed to developing countries, especially the poorest countries, island countries, and countries with economies in transition, to at least US$20 billion per year by 2025 and at least US$30 billion per year by 2030
  • Prevent the introduction of priority invasive alien species, and reduce by at least half the number of invasive alien species
  • Require large multinational corporations and financial institutions to monitor, assess, and disclose the risks, dependencies, and impacts of their supply and value chain activities on biodiversity

Regarding financial flows from developed countries to developing countries, developing countries had requested the establishment of a new biodiversity fund during the session, but it is reported that the parties agreed to create a special fund under the existing Global Environment Facility. In addition, the framework also addresses planning, monitoring, reporting and review of implementation, financing, capacity building for meeting obligations, and digital sequence information on genetic resources.


Contributor: IIYAMA Miyuki (Information Program)




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