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245. Progress of Commitments to the Paris Agreement

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In February 2021, the Secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) published the NDC Synthesis Report, which summarizes the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) of each Party. The NDCs represent efforts by each country to reduce national emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change. 

This preliminary report summarizes new and updated information on NDCs in 75 signatories submitted by December 31, 2020. These parties make up 40% of the parties to the Paris Agreement and account for 30% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions. The report points out that the NDCs covered this time do not meet the Paris Agreement's goal of keeping temperature rise well below 2°C, preferably below 1.5°C by the end of this century, and need to redouble the efforts of each country. The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states that 2030 emissions must be reduced by 45% compared to 2010 to reach the 1.5°C goal. Compared to this report, the emission reduction effect of NDCs covered in the report is expected to be only 1% reduction.

However, this report does not include the NDCs of all parties to the Paris Agreement. In particular, the largest emitters such as  the United States, China and India have not submitted the NDCs by the end of December. The final report is scheduled to be published before COP26 in Glasgow in November 2021.

The NDC Synthesis Report also indicates that many countries refer to the co-benefits of climate change adaptation, mitigation and economic diversification. Among the examples mentioned are climate smart agriculture, food waste reduction, vertical farming, adapting coastal ecosystems, increasing renewable energy ratio, improving energy efficiency, carbon dioxide capture and storage, energy source substitution and price reform in the transport sector, and moving to circular economy for waste management. On the other hand, many developing countries still need assistance in implementing climate actions.

JIRCAS aims to contribute to global issues through the development of climate change-responsive agricultural technology in developing countries. As mentioned in an article introduced earlier, this may be one way to incorporate the perspective of improving health and planetary diet.


United Nations Climate Change. Nationally determined contributions under the Paris Agreement. Synthesis report by the secretariat https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/resource/cma2021_02_adv_0.pdf

United Nations Climate Change. “Climate Commitments Not On Track to Meet Paris Agreement Goals” as NDC Synthesis Report is Published  ARTICLE / 26 FEB, 2021 https://unfccc.int/news/climate-commitments-not-on-track-to-meet-paris-… 

Contributor: IIYAMA Miyuki (Research Strategy Office)