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403. Impacts of Climate Change in Africa

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On October 19, 2021, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) released the report State of the Climate in Africa 2020. The following is a summary from the press release.

Above-normal rainfall, sometimes accompanied by flooding, was observed in the Sahel, the Great Rift Valley, the Nile Basin, Northeast Africa, the Kalahari Basin, and the Lower Congo River. In contrast, the northern coast of the Gulf of Guinea, northwest Africa, and the southeastern part of the continent remained dry, and the drought in Madagascar caused a humanitarian crisis. It is estimated that in 2020, the number of people facing a food security crisis increased by 40 percent compared to the previous year.

Weather and climate change in Africa is increasing, disrupting economic, ecological, and social systems. If no action is taken, it is projected that by 2030, 1.18 million people in extreme poverty living on less than $1.9 a day will be exposed to droughts, floods and heat waves. In sub-Saharan Africa, climate change could reduce GDP by 3% by 2050, posing a challenge not only to adaptation but also to resilience.

A particularly symbolic impact of climate change is the melting of glaciers. Currently, in Africa, only Mount Kenya (Kenya), the Rwenzori Mountains (Uganda), and Mount Kilimanjaro (Tanzania) in East Africa are covered with ice. These are too small to be considered water sources, but they are very important tourism resources. The rate of retreat of these glaciers is faster than the global average, and at this rate, it is estimated that they may disappear by the 2040s.

For Africa, urgent implementation of climate change adaptation technologies will bring benefits in terms of economic development and job creation to support recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. It is important to aim for a sustainable and green recovery from an effective climate change pandemic.


WMO State of the Climate in Africa 2020 https://library.wmo.int/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=21973#.YXXoRi8R…

Contributor: IIYAMA Miyuki (Director, Information Program)

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