Rice farmers in the tropics practice direct seeding by broadcasting germinated seeds on the puddled soil surface. Constraints include inconsistent seedling establishment, heavy weed infestation, and lodging. To solve these problems, we developed an anaerobic seeding technology in which germinated seeds are broadcast or drill-sown under the surface of flooded or water-saturated soil. The coleoptile and mesocotyl elongated rapidly under anaerobic conditions during the successful establishment. Use of cultivars tolerant to anaerobic conditions and with high seed vigor improved and stabilized the anaerobic seedling establishment. The technology was useful not only in improving the seedling establishment but also in controlling weeds and increasing lodging resistance.