Sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean was observed in a field in Brasilia DF, Brazil in the 1992 growing season, which was cool and wet. Initial symptoms consitsted of chlorotic spots which became necrotic or developed into chlorotic streaks, and the leaflet veins remained green, Fusarium solani with blue pigment was isolated from the diseased plants at a high percentage. Inoculation of the pathogen resulted in the development of typical interveinal chlorotic spots on the leaves and the fungus was reisolated from the diseased roots. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. Common bean was more susceptible than soybean in artificial inoculation test. This is the first report of SDS of soybean in Brazil and first observation in South America.