The Mekong Delta of Vietnam has been well-known as a region rich in aquatic resources with a high potential for aquacultural development. The region harbors an abundance of aquatic species and a wealth of natural water bodies. Widespread commercial aquacultural development in the Mekong Delta has increased greatly starting from the last decade. In this region, the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a crustacean species of economic significance and a major target of aquaculture activity. M. rosenbergii may be cultured either semi-intensively in canals and ponds, or extensively in a manner integrated with rice farming. This species commands high market value, and its culture has the potential to raise income levels in the Mekong Delta. However, limited supply of natural seed and technological problems relating to artificial seed production are serving as constraints to the further development of this industry. The Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences and Cantho University College of Agriculture are currently engaging in collaborative research relating to the improvement of seed production technology for M.rosenbergii. This manuscript addresses the current status of seed production and commercial culture of M. rosenbergii in the Mekong Delta in this context.