Madagascar (/ˌmædəˈɡæskər/ ; Malagasy: Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Malagasy: Repoblikan'i Madagasikara [republiˈkʲan madaɡasˈkʲarə̥]; French: République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of Southeast Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar (the fourth-largest island in the world), and numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, Madagascar split from the Indian peninsula around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Consequently, Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot; over 90% of its wildlife is found nowhere else on Earth. The island's diverse ecosystems and unique wildlife are threatened by the encroachment of the rapidly growing human population and other environmental threats. The first archaeological evidence for human foraging on Madagascar dates to 2000 BC. Human settlement of Madagascar occurred between 350 BC and AD 550 by Austronesian peoples arriving on outrigger canoes from Borneo. These were joined around AD 1000 by Bantu migrants crossing the Mozambique Channel from East Africa. Other groups continued to settle on Madagascar over time, each one making lasting contributions to Malagasy cultural life. The Malagasy ethnic group is often divided into 18 or more sub-groups of which the largest are the Merina of the central highlands. Until the late 18th century, the island of Madagascar was ruled by a fragmented assortment of shifting sociopolitical alliances. Beginning in the early 19th century, most of the island was united and ruled as the Kingdom of Madagascar by a series of Merina nobles. The monarchy collapsed in 1897 when the island was absorbed into the French colonial empire, from which the island gained independence in 1960. The autonomous state of Madagascar has since undergone four major constitutional periods, termed republics. Since 1992, the nation has officially been governed as a constitutional democracy from its capital at Antananarivo. However, in a popular uprising in 2009, president Marc Ravalomanana was made to resign and presidential power was transferred in March 2009 to Andry Rajoelina. Constitutional governance was restored in January 2014, when Hery Rajaonarimampianina was named president following a 2013 election deemed fair and transparent by the international community. Madagascar is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation internationale de la francophonie and the Southern African Development Community (SADC). In 2012, the population of Madagascar was estimated at just over 22 million, 90% of whom live on less than $2 per day. Malagasy and French are both official languages of the state. The majority of the population adheres to traditional beliefs, Christianity, or an amalgamation of both. Ecotourism and agriculture, paired with greater investments in education, health, and private enterprise, are key elements of Madagascar's development strategy. Under Ravalomanana, these investments produced substantial economic growth, but the benefits were not evenly spread throughout the population, producing tensions over the increasing cost of living and declining living standards among the poor and some segments of the middle class. As of 2014, the economy had been weakened by the then recently concluded political crisis, and quality of life remains low for the majority of the Malagasy population.(DBpediaより引用)
Madagascar Agriculture Minister Visits the Demonstration Test Site for Phosphorus Dipping Treatment (P-dipping) Technology
On February 26, 2021, the Minister of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries of Madagascar visited the demonstration test site of the SATREPS project conducted by JIRCAS in Madagascar, providing an opportunity to promote the phosphorus dipping treatment (P-dipping) technology for rice cultivation and promising breeding lines developed in the project.
The SATREPS project “Breakthrough in nutrient use efficiency for rice by genetic improvement and fertility sensing techniques in Africa (FY VARY Project)” organized a workshop, which also served as the mid-term evaluation of the project, at the Hotel Colbert in Antananarivo, Madagascar on December 12, 2019.
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The World Vegetable Center (WorldVeg) is leading a study aimed at understanding the diversity of traditional African vegetables used by Malagasy farmers, assessing their conservation status, and exploring opportunities for income generation and increased consumption. Details of the study supported by the Darwin Initiative are presented in an article by Ritha Luoga and Sognigbe N'Danikou published in the WorldVeg website.
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37.Contributing to food security in Madagascar by developing rice cultivation technology that improves fertilizer use efficiency
Madagascar is known for its rich ecosystem and rare flora and fauna, but it is less known that agriculture in this country is based on rice cultivation and rice consumption is more than twice as much rice as Japan. Meanwhile, rice productivity remains stagnant and has hindered poverty reduction in rural areas, making Madagascar one of the poorest countries in the world. Factors that impede rice productivity include the lack of money for fertilizer purchases due to poor farmers, and the poor nutrient environment resulting from weathered soil peculiar to Africa. Therefore, JIRCAS is conducting projects with local research institutes with the aim of developing technology that can improve rice productivity in a stable manner even under conditions where the nutrient supply from fertilizer and soil is small. As a recent research highlight, we developed a localized fertilizer management technique, phosphorus dipping that can efficiently increase rice yields under the typical rice-growing environment of the country.
国立研究開発法人国際農林水産業研究センター, JIRCAS News. 90 ( )
Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, JIRCAS Newsletter. 90 ( )
Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, JIRCAS Newsletter. 89 ( )
国立研究開発法人国際農林水産業研究センター, JIRCAS News. 89 ( )
国立研究開発法人国際農林水産業研究センター, JIRCAS News. 87 ( )
- Introducing a quantitative trait locus, MP3, improves rice panicle numbers in nutrient-poor soils(2020)
- Dipping rice seedlings in phosphorus (P)-enriched slurry at transplanting increases yield and avoids cold stress under P-deficient soils in the tropics(2020)
- Soil phosphorus availability for rice plants can be rapidly estimated by laboratory visible and near-infrared spectroscopy(2019)
- Limited Si-nutrient status of rice plants in relation to plant-available Si of soils, nitrogen fertilizer application, and rice-growing environment across Sub-Saharan Africa(2013)