Local Vegetables of Thailand title
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Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae)
Vernacular name: sadao
Common name: neem tree (English), indosendan (Japanese)

  Semi-deciduous tree, upto 15 m tall. Leaves pinnate, with two pairs of glands at base; blade ovate to lanceolate, somewhat curve on one side, base oblique, margin serrate, glabrous. Inflorescence a panicle. Flowers hermaphrodite and male on same individual. Calyx 5-lobed. Petals 5, free. Staminal tube cylindrical, slightly expanded at mouth, terminated by 10 appendages, sometimes bilobed; anthers 10; disc annular, united with base of ovary. Ovary 3-locular, stylar head with three stigmatic lobes. Fruit a 1-seeded drupe; seed with small adaxial sarcotesta.
  Neem is a common tree of the dry habitat, infertile soil. It can be found naturally from sea level up to 2,000 m altitude. It is grown in small plantation in dry habitat as fast growing tree.
  Young shoots and young inflorescences, normally avilable during the end of rainy season, are harvested and are eaten raw or steamed and dipped in sweet, sour and hot sauce. It is one of the most popular indigenous vegetable and fetch high price. The bitter taste is claimed
to be stomachic and febrifuge.
  The extracts obtained from seeds and leaves are known as effective inseciticide. The active constituent is an alkaloid azadirachtine. Young leaves and flowers contain isoprenyl flavanones as antimutagen (Nakahara 2003), and triterpenoids that are cytotoxic against cancer cells (Roy, 2006).
  The tree is normally raised from seed sowing and transplanting of seedlings to permanent site at 3 by 4 m spacing.


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