BNI technology was featured in “Green Growth Strategy with Carbon Neutrality in 2050” of Japanese government.
In October 2020, Prime Minister Suga declared the goal of realizing a carbon-neutral, decarbonized society in 2050. In response, the government formulated the “Green Growth Strategy with Carbon Neutrality in 2050”. “Development of biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) enhanced varieties to reduce GHGs and water pollutants”, is listed as one of the promising innovations in the action plan in “Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries” sector.
Dr. FUJITA Yasunari and Dr. MARUYAMA Kyonoshin, Senior Researchers in the Biological Resources and Post-harvest Division, were named Highly Cited Researchers for 2020 in the Plant and Animal Science category, marking 7 consecutive years of being included in the annual list of the Clarivate Analytics.
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For Japanese people, plant changes such as the blooming of cherry blossoms serve as barometer to feel a sense of the four seasons. But how does climate change affect the four seasons? In the 1950s, the four seasons in the Northern Hemisphere occurred in a predictable and even pattern each year. However, climate change is causing significant deviations to the length and start dates of each season. A paper published in Geophysical Research Letters states that by 2100, summers could be extremely long and winters short in the Northern Hemisphere if climate change measures were not adequately addressed, and it could have a big impact on, people's health and the environment including agriculture.
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In April 2020, Ipsos MORI, a market research company in the United Kingdom released a survey on how the public in selected countries view the two major crisis, COVID-19 and climate change. Compared with other countries in the world, Japan regarded climate change as a serious crisis equivalent to COVID-19 and as a policy priority, and perceived that economic recovery by COVID-19 should not have a negative impact on the environment. In turn, Japan seems less interested in making climate change as political agendas.
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Ishigaki Island, which has been attracting attention as a tourist destination in the world in recent years, is geographically closer to Taiwan than the main island of Okinawa, and belongs to a subtropical region in terms of climate. The Tropical Agriculture Research Front (TARF), a research base of JIRCAS on Ishigaki Island, is the only Japanese agricultural research institute capable of conducting empirical research in the cultivation environment of tropical crops, and has a major mission to contribute to domestic and overseas agriculture. TARF is conducting research on mangoes and passion fruits with the aim of contributing to the promotion of tropical fruit tree production in both developing countries and Japan. Since these fruits are rich in nutrients such as vitamins and have high commercial value, research that leads to the development of excellent varieties is expected to benefit both domestic and overseas consumers and producers.
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The global food chain is being tested for its robustness and resilience when it comes to movement restrictions and urban blockades (lockdowns) due to the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19). In order for the international community to overcome the global food crisis, it is necessary to closely monitor the trends in international trade. The trade value of all agricultural products has tripled in face value from 2000 to 2018, and has almost doubled on a weight basis over the same period. Japan is the world’s third-largest cereal importer, and one of the reasons for a calorie-based food self-sufficiency rate of 37% is the heavy reliance on imported maize for livestock feed. The international rice trade from Asia to the Middle East and Africa is surprisingly large and the net per capita rice consumption of importing countries is even higher than Japan. In recent years, rice consumption in Africa has been increasing year by year due to urbanization and population growth, and agricultural technologies that contribute to continuous increase in yield and planted areas are the key to improving the self-sufficiency rate.
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In Japan, rice improvement programs focus on developing varieties with good taste while well adapted to specific local climatic and weather conditions. Rice is also used as one of the staple crops Most of the poor regions of the world are concentrated in the tropics. On the other hand, the growing influence of global warming and increasing frequencies of extreme weather events in recent years have raised serious concerns of the deterioration of both rice quality and yield in the future. Aiming for stable rice production will greatly contribute to poverty alleviation and social stability in these regions, where Japan can play a strategic role to contribute to global food and nutrition security. JIRCAS is pursuing the conservation rice germplasms and breeding materials and development of a database, in order to contribute to the establishment of an international cooperation system for the conservation and use of rice genetic resources.
国立研究開発法人国際農林水産業研究センター, JIRCAS News. 90 ( )
Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, JIRCAS Newsletter. 90 ( )
平沢 泠, 熱帯農研集報. 72 , 1- 8 ( )
香月 祥太郎, 熱帯農研集報. 72 , 9- 30 ( )
高倉 直, 熱帯農研集報. 72 , 31- 39 ( )
Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
- Oxygenation of flooded paddy soil and inhibition of methane production through irrigation with water containing bulk oxygen nanobubbles(2019)
- Biological nitrification inhibition of sorghum is related to the inhibition of ammonia-oxidizing archaea(2019)
- Use of RNA interference to suppress gene expression of vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone in the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei(2019)
- Genetic diversity and characteristics of mango genetic resources in Japan(2019)
- “Ishigaki Sango,” a new variety of heat-tolerant dwarf papaya(2006)
- Suitable night temperature conditions for reducing the acidity content in winter-harvested passion fruit(2006)
- The importance of arachidonic acid in fry production of tropical/subtropical fish species(2003)
- Runoff of suspended solids, nitrogen and phosphorus estimated from catchment basins of Miyara River on Ishigaki Island(2003)
- Improved sugarcane cultivation in the subtropical islands of Japan using controlled-release N-fertilizers(2003)
- The relationship between the distribution of citrus psylla, the vector insect of citrus greening disease, and the distribution of jasmine orange(2001)