Bolivia (/bəˈlɪviə/; Spanish: [boˈliβja]; Quechua: Buliwya [bʊlɪwja]; Aymara: Wuliwya [wʊlɪwja]; Guarani: Mborivia [ᵐboˈɾiʋja]), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Spanish: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, and to the northwest by Peru. One-third of the country is the Andean mountain range, with one of its largest cities and principal economic centers located in the Altiplano. Before Spanish colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, while the northern and eastern lowlands were inhabited by independent tribes. Spanish conquistadors arriving from Cuzco and Asunción took control of the region in the 16th century. During the Spanish colonial period Bolivia was administered by the Royal Audiencia of Charcas. Spain built its empire in great part upon the silver that was extracted from Bolivia's mines. After the first call for independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar, on 6 August 1825. Since independence, Bolivia has endured periods of political and economic instability, including the loss of various peripheral territories to its neighbors, such as Acre and parts of the Gran Chaco. It has been landlocked since the annexation of its Pacific coast territory by Chile following the War of the Pacific (1879–84), but agreements with neighbouring countries have granted it indirect access to the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The country's population, estimated at 10 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Mestizos, Europeans, Asians and Africans. The racial and social segregation that arose from Spanish colonialism has continued to the modern era. Spanish is the official and predominant language, although 36 indigenous languages also have official status, of which the most commonly spoken are Guarani, Aymara and Quechua languages. Modern Bolivia is constitutionally a democratic republic, divided into nine departments. Its geography varies from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands, situated within the Amazon Basin. It is a developing country, with a medium ranking in the Human Development Index and a poverty level of 53 percent. Its main economic activities include agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, and manufacturing goods such as textiles, clothing, refined metals, and refined petroleum. Bolivia is very wealthy in minerals, especially tin.(DBpediaより引用)
A delegation including Dr. Antonio Gandarillas, representative of the PROINPA Foundation in Bolivia, Dr. Giovanna Almanza and Dr. Isabel Morales from the Universidad de San Andres visited the JIRCAS Headquarters on July 11, 2018.
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The Salar de Uyuni in Bolivia, known worldwide as a miracle of nature, is surrounded by fields with high salinity and barren lands devoid of major crops. Quinoa is an extremely rare crop that grows in such a severe environment and has recently attracted attention as a “superfood”. It is also one of the so-called “orphan crops” which receives less attention in terms of breeding. JIRCAS is embarking on a project aimed at developing improved and high value-added quinoa varieties and clarifying the mechanism of crops that adapt to severe environment and climate conditions in order to gain insights into breeding strategies as countermeasures against climate change.
Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, JIRCAS Newsletter. 89 ( )
国立研究開発法人国際農林水産業研究センター, JIRCAS News. 89 ( )
国立研究開発法人国際農林水産業研究センター, 広報JIRCAS. 6 ( )
独立行政法人 緑資源機構, 緑資源機構マニュアル. ( )
独立行政法人 緑資源機構, 緑資源機構マニュアル. ( )