Efficient phosphorus application strategy to improve rice yields under cold stress-prone and P-deficient environments
DescriptionDespite a general perception that phosphorus (P) deficiency delays phenological development in annual crops, the impacts of interaction between this phenological delay and climatic conditions on crop productivity remain poorly understood. On-farm experiments were conducted in the central highlands of Madagascar, where P deficiency and late-season low temperature stress frequently restrict rice yields. Rice X265 was grown under four different fertilizer treatments with different combinations of N and P during early and late transplanting dates (ETP and LTP, respectively). Plants subjected to no fertilizer or single N treatments (-P) showed delayed heading by 9–16 days relative to the single P and N and P combined plots on average (Table 1). The delay in phenological development without P application (-P) and the delay in transplanting date (LTP) additively increased the risk of low temperature stresses at the heading periods (Fig. 1). As a result, -P plots at LTP increased the cooling degree days and spikelet sterility while the delay in phenological development without P application little affected the cooling degree days and spikelet sterility when transplanted early or ETP (Fig. 2). With this significant interaction between P application and transplanting dates on cold stresses, the effect of P on rice yield was much greater in LTP than in ETP because P application alleviated not only P deficiency but low temperature stress as well by shortening day to heading (Table 1). This study provides field evidence that the effects of P application on rice yield were greatly dependent on transplanting date via their impact on phenological development under P-deficiency in climate stress-prone environments. Changes in phenological development due to plant nutrient status and its interaction with climate-induced stress needs further attention for improving fertilizer management practice.
Table 1. Effect of P application and transplanting date on days to heading and yield of rice grown on P-deficient fields
- -P indicates the means of the plots without fertilizer and with N applied as urea at the rate of 80 kg N ha-1.
- +P indicates the means of plots with P applied as triple super phosphate at the rate of 50 kg P2O5 ha-1 and with N and P combined.
- ETP refers to early transplanting plots (November 2829). LTP refers to late transplanting plots (December 27–30).
- Underlined values indicate significant differences between -P and +P plots at 5% by Tukey HSD.
- ANOVA detected a significant interaction between P treatment and transplanting dates on yield.
Fig. 1. Changes in daily mean temperatures at the heading periods as affected by transplanting dates and P application
Fig. 2. Effect of transplanting dates and P application on the cooling degree days (CDD) and spikelet sterility
CDD is the sum of daily mean temperatures below 22ºC from 15 days before to 7 days after heading.
Figures and table reprinted/modified with permission from Andrianary et al. (2021).
- Research project
- Program name
- Term of research
- Responsible researcher
Tsujimoto Yasuhiro ( Crop, Livestock and Environment Division )KAKEN Researcher No.: 20588511
Aung Zaw Oo ( Crop, Livestock and Environment Division )
Nishigaki Tomohiro ( Crop, Livestock and Environment Division )KAKEN Researcher No.: 80795013
Andrianary Haja Bruce ( Radio Isotope Laboratory, University of Antananarivo )
Rakotonindrina Hobimiarantsoa ( Radio Isotope Laboratory, University of Antananarivo )
Rabenarivo Michel ( Radio Isotope Laboratory, University of Antananarivo )
Ramifehiarivo Nandrianina ( Radio Isotope Laboratory, University of Antananarivo )
Razakamanarivo Herintsitohaina ( Radio Isotope Laboratory, University of Antananarivo )
Rakotoson Tovohery ( Radio Isotope Laboratory, University of Antananarivo )
- Publication, etc.
Andrianary et al. (2021) Field Crops Research 271: 108256https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2021.108256Rakotoson, T. et al. (2022) Field Crops Research 275: 108370https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2021.108370
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＊ Affiliation at the time of implementation of the study.