Establishment of feeding standards for beef cattle and feedstuff database for the Indochinese peninsula
Consumption of beef products is expanding in the Indochinese peninsula nations because of changes in lifestyle. Hence, there is a need to establish a cost-effective and efficient feeding method for the expansion of beef production. The feeding standards used in tropical countries for local beef cattle are based on data obtained from the cattle breeds raised in temperate zones such as NRC in the USA (National Research Council, 2000). The nutrient requirements of tropical cattle breeds and the climatic conditions for measurements in tropical environments are different from those of temperate areas. Therefore, JIRCAS;Department of Livestock Development, Thailand (DLD); and Khon Kaen University, Thailand (KKU) have started a project, “Establishment of a feeding standard for beef cattle and a feedstuff database for the Indochinese Peninsula”. Since it is essential to construct a regional research cooperation network for the efficient achievement of the targets, other eight research organizations in Thailand, Lao PDR, and Cambodia have also become involved in this project.
This project has released two versions of the feeding standards written in English and Thai (Fig. 1). These feeding standards comprise of two parts. Part 1 provides information on feed intake, feeding recommendations and nutrient requirements of the local beef cattle based on the results of this project. Moreover, the following equations for predicting feed intake, and energy and protein requirements of local beef cattle are also estimated based on the results of this project (Table 1). Part 2 provides tables of chemical composition and energy contents of most feedstuffs available in Thailand. The details of feeds i.e., portions, parts, nutrients necessary for growth and maintenance and proparation of those feedstuffs are indicated in the tables. Moreover, the ‘beef cattle ration formulation software’ (BRATION) was developed to assist users on feed formulation (Fig. 2). This software performs a process in which various feed ingredients are combined in different proportions to get the desired amount of nutrients. This software consist of four parts; feed database, animal data and nutrient requirements, ration formulation and nutrient balance, and mineral mixture formulation with report. This software calculates and shows the feed composition, nutrients value and feed costs if the inputs such as quantity, rate and cost of ingredients are entered into as factors.
These feeding standards which are meant to contribute to the efficient feed formulation and management of local beef cattle in Indochinese peninsular nations, are likewise applicable in other tropical areas, such as in Sub-Saharan African nations. However, there are many kinds of local beef cattle in their regions which may have different characteristics and requirements. Therefore, it must be duly noted that these feeding standards are based on data obtained from cattle breeds raised in Thailand. Moreover, BRATION is a free software for feed formulation. It will be available for download from the JIRCAS homepage. Please feel free to use it after gaining complete understanding and assuming responsibility for your own use.
Table 1. Calculation equations for nutrient requirements
Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences Animal Production and Grassland Division
- Term of research
- Responsible researcher
OTSUKA Makoto ( Animal Production and Grassland Division )
HAYASHI Keisuke ( Animal Production and Grassland Division )
PAENGKOUM Pramote ( Suranaree University of Technology )
PROMMA Somkid ( Department of Livestock Development, Thailand )
TAKENAKA Akio ( Animal Production and Grassland Division )
- Publication, etc.
The Working Committee of Thai Feeding Standard for Ruminant (2010) Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle in Indochinese Peninsula. Department of Livestock Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives in Thailand. Bangkok
Paengkoum (2010) Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 9: 1630-1632
Paengkoum (2010) Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 5:33-35
JIRCAS Working Report, No.64 (2009)
- Japanese PDF